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  The basic elements of training – for beginners

For the sake of the order, let’s determine that the beginner is each student, whose training experience is less than 12 months. The whole period of training beginners, or the first will be divided into four stages. 

The initial stage includes the first 2 months of training, the second stage is 3, 4 and 5 months of training, the third stage is 6.7 and 8 months of training, the fourth stage is 9, 10, 11 and 12 months of training. 

The above division is the result of the assumption that one should not train throughout the year in the same way, ie according to one general training plan (frequency of training, frequency of training individual muscles, division of muscle groups into teams) and one training program (list of exercises, number of series and repetitions in series). 

Let’s remember about the need to adjust the training parameters to our growing capabilities and skills and to avoid the monotony of training. 

Selection and comparison of exercises !!. 

In order to effectively increase muscle mass and strength, you need to carefully choose the exercises, bearing in mind that not all of them are equally well suited for this purpose. 

Exercise is very much so for easier selection we divide them into several groups. 

In terms of the number of muscles and joints involved in the work, we divide the exercises into multi-joint (differently-involving several joints and several muscle groups) and one-joint ones; otherwise isolated-engaging single joints and a very limited number of muscles). 

In terms of the type of equipment used, we divide exercises into machines and free weights; barbells or dumbbells). 

Exercises that build strength and muscle mass are multi-joint exercises performed with free weights. 

This group includes squats with barbell, dead string with barbell, pulling the bar up to the belly in the fall of the scab, squeezing the bar on a horizontal bench, pressing the barbell from the chest sitting down and pulling on the rod. 

The advantage of the above-mentioned and similar exercises over isolated exercises such as; hangs with dumbbells, lifting the dumbbell upside down, straightening the legs while sitting (machine), lifting the forearm with the dumbbell resting on the inner part of the thigh, pulling down with a straight hand the twig extracts, French squeezing dumbbells, etc., mainly consists in the possibility of using larger weights that directly translates into greater increases in weight and strength. 

Multi-joint exercises with heavy weights stimulate the development of muscles both directly (strongly stimulating the fibers and nerves in the working area of ​​the body) and indirectly (the release of anabolic hormones – testosterone and growth hormone-hormone). The additional significance of the benefits stem from the use of free weights. 

In contrast to training on machines using a barbell or dumbbell we can adjust the track on which the weight moves – to their own individual needs. 

In addition, free weights must be kept in balance, which forces us to involve muscles more when stabilizing the body and causes more tension in the muscles we train. 

In the first year of training, exercise with free weights should be treated as a priority and all others as their essential complement. 

Beginners do not have properly developed neuromuscular coordination and the ability to concentrate so much that their muscles are quickly fatigued, it means that only then will we use the full potential of multi-joint exercises when we do them first in the training of individual muscle groups. 

Of course, it is possible to withdraw for a short period of time from this principle, but only in a specifically justified situation such as 

change of incentives to avoid training monotony; I would like to emphasize here that many exercises isolated and performed on machines are very valuable exercises. 

Certainly some of them will become for you in the future, i.e. at the level of medium or high promotion of basic exercises, i.e. those that are most often used in the training of a given muscle group. 

We divide the exercises into basic and complementary ones at a higher level of training. the only criterion for choosing exercises is their effectiveness. 

So from the beginning of your bodybuilding, observe muscle reactions to individual exercises and try to determine which ones are the most effective for you. 



The right number of series. 

The selection of the right number of series for individual muscle groups is one of the key issues in the strategy of building muscle mass. 

Unfortunately, establishing such a number is not easy, because it is dependent on the individual’s individual predispositions, lifestyle of training and diet. 

It remains to experiment or a trial and error method. Here are some important tips for beginners; 

-Downloading the number of series for a given exercise or muscle group should not be suggested by the numbers used by the best culturists 

-For large muscle groups such as back, thighs and chest muscles, more series should be performed than smaller groups such as biceps, triceps 

-Downloading the number of series for smaller muscle groups should take into account their involvement in the training of large muscle groups 

– The more we train a given muscle group, the less we do for it and vice versa 

-When determining the number of series for particular muscle groups one should remember that the boundary between optimal muscle load and overtraining is very narrow 

Advanced bodybuilders use a very different number of series for a specific muscle group. Some perform from 3 to 6 sets and others from 6 to 12 and others from 20 to 30. 

However, these are extreme cases, but actually they define the boundaries in which beginners who want to copy the best trainings move. 

The chance that this would give a good effect is negligible, so it is not worth imitating the best … It should be obvious that we make more zeros than small ones for large muscle groups. 

It is difficult to understand the thinking of those exercising, who, for example, on the back muscles perform 12 sets and the same number on the biceps. Biceps are small muscles. To avoid overtraining, use a much smaller number of series aimed at the development of these muscles, sometimes only 50% of the proper number for the back muscles. 

It is not necessary to demonstrate great knowledge, just a bit of common sense to make the question of the relationship between the frequency of training of a given muscle group and the number of series performed for that group obvious. 

The more we put our muscles under the stress, the more time should be spent on their regeneration. One of the mistakes commonly made by bodybuilders is increasing the number of series when the results achieved by them do not meet expectations or in the moment of stagnation in muscle development. 

Enhancing the leaf strips is the last thing they should do. First of all, you should verify your diet and ensure that conditions for muscle regeneration between successive treadmills are correct. 

Often this means the need to shorten the training time and increase their intensity. Always keep in mind the fact that the optimal stimulation of the muscle development process is divided into overtraining one step. Seemingly slightly increasing the number of series performed for a given muscle group (eg from 5 to 7) may cause instead of the expected increase in the rate of development of this group, we will notice a significant slowdown. The higher we have the ability to focus on training and achieve a high degree of intensity, the more precisely we must determine the number of series for individual exercises and for the entire training of a given muscle group. 



The correct number of repetitions 

Determining the right number of repetitions in the series is another important task. When determining it, the purpose of training is what matters most. For a beginner bodybuilder, this goal is usually to increase muscle mass at this angle, we will consider the matter. 

Further considerations about the number of repetitions in the series will concern multi-joint exercises that form the basis of beginner bodybuilder training. For unitary exercises, a greater number of repetitions is recommended in series than for multi-joint exercises. 

The vast majority of body builders in the period of building muscle mass chooses the number of repetitions in the range from 6 to 15. 

This range can be considered universal because it is appropriate for all training groups regardless of the level of training advancement. 

What specific number a given person should use depends primarily on individual predispositions. For example, people with a tendency to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue should use a higher number of repetitions, whereas slim people who slowly gain weight should use a small number of repetitions. 

As is clear from the practice of many tests and tests conducted for this average practitioner, the best solution is the number of repetitions ranging from 8 to 12. As you already know, the proper selection of exercises promotes the increase of body secretion of anabolic hormones, so that the process runs optimally belongs to choose the number of repetitions in series. 

As it happens, another training tactic serves to increase the secretion of testosterone and another increase in the level of growth hormone. The average range of repetition here is a good compromise solution. The compromise also deals with another issue. In the muscles we distinguish two main types of muscle fibers: red (slow-twitch) fibers, differently endurance fibers and white (fast-twitch) fibers, otherwise high-speed ones. 

White fibers are properly loaded when the series consists of 6-8 repetitions and red when the series consist of 12-15 repetitions. Comprehensive muscle load through the involvement of all types of fibers ensures an average number of repetitions, it is worth noting that the weight used for training in the repetition range from 8-12 will be rather moderate, which will allow you to train technically in a controlled manner at the right pace. 

This is very important because such training is safe and mastering the technique of individual exercises is one of the basic tasks of the beginner. 


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