Damage to DNA after training

Any type of high-intensity training can be detrimental to DNA stability. Many studies confirm that strenuous exercise can intensify inflammation and cause damage caused by free radicals, thus putting a shadow on the undeniable benefits of regular physical activity. 

Because reactive oxygen forms are formed in large amounts during high intensity exercises, they are known for their influence on DNA stability, and the question arises about the safety of similar training. The most reactive ROS present in biological systems include the hydroxyl radical (OH ·) and the superoxide radical (O2 · -). The (ONOO-) anion of nitrite, also called the peroxo-nitrite anion, plays a role (some describe it as a free radical, but it is not). The high reactivity of these compounds results from the presence of an unpaired electron and is associated with strong oxidizing properties. The lipids and proteins of cell membranes are oxidized (membrane degradation) and DNA is damaged, leading to cell death. 

At the moment, the interaction of reactive oxygen species with 

The enzymatic antioxidant barrier is formed by enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Exercise of medium and large volume induce DNA damage that seems to be transient and proportional to the intensity of training. Damage that can be attributed to the action of free radicals on nucleic acids in the body is repaired within 24-72 h. Therefore, physical exercises should not have long-term consequences for the health of athletes, provided that the appropriate rest time between sessions of exercises of high intensity is established. Regular effort, with a gradual increase in load, also seems to be the safest approach to avoiding DNA instability. 

Conclusion if you are intensely running, training or swimming – ensure adequate regeneration time between workouts. 

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You can read also: Post workout regeneration