Athlete’s diet is associated with the need to increase the share of proteins, in general, the daily supply of macronutrients. This is related to the fact that the body subjected to intense physical effort, must cope with the reconstruction of tissues and compensate for the lost amino acids during training. In addition, a certain pool of amino acids must be a surplus, which will allow even an increase in muscle mass or effective compensation of microdamages.
Protein is the basic macronutrient of diets of athletes as well as non-training people. Many people, however, misinterpret this term by putting proteins in the first place of their menus, which means that by constructing their menu, it only cares about the right amount of protein. Remember that carbohydrates and fats are equally important.
At a chemical angle, the protein is made up of peptide bonds to which amino acids are assigned. The division due to the type of synthesis in our system, classifies them as endogenous (the body is not able to produce them by itself) and exogenous (the body can synthesize the amino acids belonging to this group itself). The nutritional role of proteins is based on the building function, they are part of many enzymes and hormones. They affect the rate of energy transformation, thermogenesis or stimulating anabolism.
The amount of protein we need is an age-old problem. However, there is a certain theoretical spread that defines the guidelines, taking into account the nature of the training and physical activity
-for those who are not very active, from 0.8 to 1g per 1kg of body weight
-speed endurance (mainly cross-country) from 1.2 to 1.4g per 1kg of body weight
-for strength-strength (martial arts) from 1.6 to 1.8g per 1kg of body weight
-silver-speed (weight lifting) from 1.8 to 2.2g per 1kg of body weight
It should be remembered that the given values are averaged, and individual preferences, such as the enzymatic capabilities of a given individual, will affect the adjustments in these calculations. In addition, the amount of protein will also depend on the supply of total energy throughout the day. While the amount of up to 22,3, 3g of protein seems to be the right solution when building muscle mass, the amount of protein during reduction may increase up to the limit of 3.1g per 1kg of body weight per day (1). This amount allows not only effective protection of muscle mass. It also helps in stimulating the feeling of fullness, making us have more control over hunger.
We divide protein products into animal and vegetable sources. This division takes into account the raw material from which proteins are obtained, which even determines the amino acid profile of a given protein.
Exemplary sources of animal protein: poultry, offal, beef, pork, eggs, dairy products, seafood, fish, game, whey protein, casein protein,
Example vegetable sources peas, soy, lentils, chickpeas, broad beans, red beans, rice, buckwheat, nuts, quinoa, blue poppy
It should be noted that both animal and vegetable proteins deserve their place in our menus. Personally, I am not a proponent of expressing myself in the context of vegetable proteins as defective. Sometimes the thesis put forward by the trainers, and even the trainers themselves, suggest that the biological value only possesses proteins of animal origin. Unfortunately, there is no real argument that would prove that vegetable proteins are of no value to us. To confirm these words, it is enough to ask the first vegan who is found who is alive and well and yet is based only on vegetable products.
It is important to choose food products that will include aminograms of accepted foods. This means that even having a plant product, deficient in certain types of amino acids, its consumption in the presence of meat art – will be a set. Therefore, we should count the whole of accepted proteins throughout the day, including both food sources.
Personally, I also include in the general balance the amino acids adopted in the form of BCAA or EAA. Although they are free forms, they belong to the group of protein amino acids. Their additional supply, especially in persons consuming proteins at the upper limit of reference values, should, however, be taken into account. Because they translate into a nitrogen balance or affect metabolism in the human body.
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