White and brown adipose tissue

Adipose tissue is associated with overweight, unsightly appearance and many diseases, but do you know that fat in the body can be divided into” good “and” bad “? Good fat, or brown adipose tissue, is metabolically active and its function is maintaining a healthy body temperature White fat is an energy store in the form of lipids and it is a “excess baggage” in the form of excessive body weight. What to do to increase the amount of brown adipose in the body? What benefits do they have?

 

White and brown adipose tissue – differences

White adipose tissue is designed to store energy and produce hormones that are secreted into the blood.An amount of it is essential for the proper functioning of the body.Another hormone produced by white fat cells (adipocytes) is adiponectin, which affects metabolic processes, makes the tissues sensitive to insulin and also has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects When white fat is too much in the body, the production process of adiponectin is slowed down, resulting in a higher incidence of metabolic diseases and type 2 diabetes.

Cells that form white adipose tissue have a much larger volume than brown adipocytes and accumulate larger amounts of fat.” 95% of the volume of white fat cells are lipids in the form of a single vesicle, which increases as they accumulate, whereas in a brown fat cell it is 30-50 % lipids and occur in the form of numerous and small droplets.Black cells are distinguished primarily by a large number of mitochondria and better innervation and blood supply.These cells are much more active.

 

The main difference in the functionality of fat cells is that white adipocytes store fat, whereas brown adipocytes use it to generate energy.

It is thought that in adult organisms, brown adipose tissue plays an important role in maintaining normal body weight and preventing insulin resistance.The amount of it is variable, decreases with age and weight gain. Larger amounts of brown fat occur in women and in people exposed to cold, for example, those working in the open air, it was also noticed that people who are very physically active, such as athletes or swimmers, are characterized by a greater amount of brown fat cells in the body.

For many years, it was thought that brown adipose tissue occurs only in newborns and small children as an additional safeguard to maintain normal body temperature. Research in recent years using modern measurement methods has shown that adults also have brown fat, but in much smaller quantities.First of all, it can be found in the supraclavicular region and neck.It is likely that the groups of brown fat cells and even individual cells are scattered in white adipose tissue.This is good news, especially for people who have problems maintaining the correct weight In the cells of the brown adipose tissue, even the drug is considered an epidemic of obesity.How? It boils down to their metabolic activity and strong ability to utilize the fat accumulated in white adipocytes.Therefore, the excess of “bad” fat can beto do so by increasing the amount of “good” fat in the body.

 

Cryotherapy and physical activity increase the amount of brown fat

Scientists from the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine have come up with an interesting study on a group of people covered with thermal blankets in a room where the temperature has gradually decreased from 26 ° C to 12 ° C. The energy expenditure of study participants increased by an average of In addition, in people who started trembling with cold, muscle activity increased by 88%, while the level of irinine – the hormone responsible for the development of brown adipose tissue – was examined, while the body’s cooling increased significantly.

Fortunately, cold is not the only stimulant for the production of brown adipocytes, so you do not have to decide on cryotherapy to help your weight loss efforts.” The level of secretion of irises was also investigated during physical exercise, the amount of the hormone was similar to that produced during the body’s cooling. conclusion – physical activity improves not only the condition of the muscles, but also causes the transformation of white fat into brown.

A group of scientists from the Joslin Diabetes Research Center in Boston under the leadership of Kristin Stanford also checked the effects of physical exercise on brown adipose tissue.” The results of studies on mice and men who regularly use physical activity are very promising. Men regularly for 12 weeks They rode a bike, while the mice were running on a spinning wheel for 11 days.In both humans and mice, an increase in the content of brown adipose tissue and its increased metabolic activity was noticed.In the case of animals, the newly formed adipose tissue was transplanted into organisms of mice that were not active. In these mice, glucose tolerance increased, tissue sensitivity to insulin increased, body weight dropped and fat mass increased. The positive metabolic effect lasted from two to three months.

 

Scientists have found that …

… father’s genes lead to the development of white adipose tissue.Naturally, brown adipose tissue develops under the influence of genes from the mother.The findings were made by the team of prof.Jan-Wilhelm Kornfeld from Syddansk Universitet (Denmark) with researchers from the Max Planck Institute in Cologne (Germany) and the Medial University in Vienna (Austria).

 

Worth knowing

What is beige fat tissue

Up to a point, it was thought that brown and white fat cells were derived from the same type of stem cells.This thesis, however, turned out to be wrong.It has been found, however, that depending on the needs, the precursor cell may be transformed into a brown fat cell or a skeletal muscle cell.So a brown fat cell is in some respects very similar to a muscle cell (numerous mitochondria, rapid energy consumption).In this situation, it seemed logical that mature white fat cells could not turn into brown fat cells.In his studies on rats acclimated to low ambient temperature, Saverio Cinti from the University of Ancona in Italy showed, however, that white adipose tissue can turn into brown in the process of transdifferentiation.The number of fat cells did not change, while the newly formed brown cells differed slightly in their morphology from the “classic” ones – originally created from the precursor cell.They were called beige adipose tissue and the same functionality was found as in the case of brown adipose tissue.These results show that the formation of brown adipose tissue can be stimulated even in adulthood.

 

Brown fat cells a drug for obesity?

Studies by Joslin researchers indicate that brown adipose tissue is an important metabolic organ whose presence may support the treatment of diseases resulting from obesity – insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. 6) Previous studies have shown that IL-6 increases energy expenditure and has a positive effect on weight loss It is not known if the same effects can be obtained when transplanting brown fat cells in humans, but there is a good chance that these adipocytes may be used to treat obesity and diabetes.

The results of the research of independent teams of scientists indicate that the increase in the content of brown adipose tissue in the body has a positive effect on metabolism and weight loss.

Numerous studies indicate that the higher the body weight, the lower the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue in the body, and people with type 2 diabetes are characterized by a reduced amount of this tissue in healthy people. body fat has a positive effect on metabolism and body weight loss It is possible to create brown fat cells in the body of an adult by regular physical activity. Before we get a drug for obesity, which will undergo clinical trials, do everything to increase the level in your body ” good “fat. Take care of the daily portion of the movement, and help you overcome the overweight and discomfort resulting from excessive body weight

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