Green coffee – hit or putty?

Green coffee is a frequently used supplement supporting slimming. You can find it in the form of capsules or infusion. What is it really? Grains of green coffee are grains that have not been heat treated. Thanks to the fact that they are not roasted, they have a green color and retain certain properties that black coffee does not have anymore. I will try to introduce the issue of green coffee in this article.

 

  1. Green coffee – properties

Coffee (Coffea L.) is a plant belonging to the Marzena family. It is an evergreen plant, it is 4-7 m high. Coffee bushes grow in the tropics. The flowers are white, small in size and smelling of jasmine. Coffee fruits are fleshy berries that change color from red to yellow to purple during ripening. Inside, there are seeds that are extracted, shelled and selected for the production of coffee.

 

Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and a number of antioxidants. Due to its rich composition, it has many positive properties, among others, it lowers the level of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. Our body is constantly exposed to the harmful effects of free radicals, which are produced both inside and outside it. Excess free radicals lead to the development of many diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and even cancer. Antioxidants neutralize their action.

 

Antioxidants include phenolic acids, which are significant in coffee. Of these, the most is coffee and chlorogenic acid, which is a combination of the former with quinic acid. Coffee acid is called an inhibitor of cancer. It also works antibacterially. Chlorogenic acid is of great importance in chemoprevention of tumors. It dilates blood vessels and reduces the absorption of glucose in the blood. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory and cholagogue. Both acids as natural antioxidants have the ability to scavenge free radicals and bind heavy metal ions. Gugliucci et al. Proved that by drinking coffee we provide the body with eight isomers of chlorogenic acid. They are all well absorbed. In addition, coffee counteracts tooth decay. The compounds contained in it – caffeine, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline get inside the tooth and interfere with its contact with bacteria.

 

  1. Green coffee – how it arises

The raw material for coffee production is the fruit of the coffee tree, which blooms only a few days, but a few times a year. The fruits ripen for about 9 months. The ripe fruit is a red berry, which in size and shape resembles a cherry fruit. Each fruit contains two half-round seeds. To extract coffee seeds, two methods are used – natural drying of fruits in the sun, followed by machine shelling and so-called. wet method. The wet method consists in separating the seeds from the pulp by crushing the fruit using special machines using a large amount of water. After that, they undergo a fermentation process lasting up to 60 hours. The next stages are sorting, drying, polishing, etc. Such raw grains are just green coffee. It is very durable, it can be stored even a few years without significant deterioration of quality.

 

  1. Coffee for slimming

Green coffee is known mainly as an effective slimming aids. All this is due to the high content of chlorogenic acid, which is scarce in roasted coffee. Positive effects on the reduction of body weight are confirmed by scientific studies. Studies in mice have shown that regular consumption of green coffee can counter overweight and obesity. It reduces the accumulation of adipose tissue by regulating the production of fat cells and genes related to the metabolism of lipids and proteins. The human experiment confirmed the positive effect of green coffee beans on slimming processes. The study involved obese women aged 25-45. They were divided into two groups – women consuming 400 mg green coffee per day and women taking a placebo. Both groups of women applied a properly balanced reduction diet. After 8 weeks, weight loss was observed in both groups, but weight loss in women consuming green coffee was greater. The result of the analysis confirms the beneficial effect of green coffee on weight loss, but only when observing a healthy diet.

 

  1. Opinions

There are many species of coffee shrubs – arabica, robusta, liberica, excelsa, etc. The most popular species used to make coffee are arabica and robusta. They constitute as much as 40-60% of world production.

Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is aromatic and delicate. It comes from Ethiopia and Mozambique. Today it is produced in Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, India, Costa Rica and the Middle East. Fruits throughout the year. It is very demanding when it comes to growing. Due to its composition and flavor, it is considered the best variety. It is characterized by a mild taste. It contains more lipid compounds and sugars, but about half as much caffeine as robusta. Robusta coffee (Coffea robusta) is grown in the Ivory Coast, Zaire, Angola and Indonesia. It is less demanding when it comes to growing, and more resistant to diseases than arabica. The taste is more bitter, which is caused by a higher content of caffeine. It is considered an inferior type of coffee. It is used for the production of instant coffee and inferior coffee blends.

The content of valuable biologically active substances in coffee is not constant. It depends on many factors, including from growing conditions, its location, access of light, soil, temperature, amount of rainfall and production process. Jeszka-Skowron et al. Compared robusta and arabica coffee from various regions of the world with respect to the content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that robusta contains more caffeine and antioxidant compounds, including chlorogenic acid, than arabica coffee. Differences in the content of individual compounds also occurred within one species. The table shows the content of caffeine and antioxidants in arabica and robusta coffee of various origins.

The most caffeine contains robusta from Indonesia, while the least comes from Uganda and Vietnam. When it comes to arabica, the most caffeine is from Laos and the least from China and Rwanda. The largest amount of chlorogenic acid is robusta from Indonesia and arabica from Rwanda, while the smallest robusta from Vietnam and arabica from Laos. Another research done by Babova et al. Showed that a very high amount of chlorogenic acid with a small amount of caffeine is characterized by arabica coffee from Kenya. It is worth to enrich the diet with this coffee.

 

  1. Green coffee – taste

Despite the many pro-health properties, the taste of green coffee is not satisfactory. Although it is characterized by a higher content of polyphenols compared to roasted coffee, its organoleptic qualities are much worse. It does not contain the desired intense aroma as in the case of roasted coffee beans. It is characterized by a delicate, slightly bland taste and aroma. Chlorogenic acid gives it astringent, slightly sour taste.

Due to its unfavorable flavors, the supplement market has released a number of preparations in the form of capsules, which contain green coffee extract. They are recommended primarily to people who are slimming. Very often they also contain other ingredients, such as chromium, which additionally support weight reduction.

The diet supplements market is becoming more and more popular, and the variety of these products is still growing. If we decide on a green coffee supplement, pay attention to the composition, so that it is as short as possible. In addition, we choose well-known Polish brands. If we decide on a given supplement, let’s read the manufacturer’s website and check if the plant has implemented certified quality systems, such as HACCP, ISO or BRC. Production according to these systems guarantees high product quality. However, the best choice is green coffee in the form of raw seeds.

 

  1. Summary

Green coffee has many positive and healthy properties. Thanks to the chlorogenic acid content it supports the weight loss process. The composition of the coffee depends on its species and country of origin. That is why it is very important that we read the labels before buying the product. We can consume green coffee in the form of a brew or capsules. Let’s choose preparations with the shortest composition, the best-known Polish producers. Remember that green coffee will help you lose weight only when you use a healthy diet.

 

Bibliography

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Baeza G. et al., Exhaustive Qualitative LC-DAD-MSnAnalysis of Arabica Green Coffee Beans Cinnamoyl-glycosides and Cinnamoylshikimic Acids as New Polyphenols in Green Coffee, “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry” 2016, 64 (51), 9663-9674 .
Choi BK et al., “Asia Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine” 2016, 9 (7), 635-643.
Haidari F. et al., Energy restriction combined with green coffee bean extract, adipocytokines and body composition in obese women, “Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine” 2017, 26 (6), 1048-1054.
Jeszka-Skowron M. et al., Chlorogenic acids, caffeine content and antioxidant. Coffee, European Food Research and Technology 2016, 242, 1403-1409.
Gugliucci A., Markowicz DH, Chlorogenic acid protects paraoxonase 1 activity in high density lipoproteins from inactivation caused by physiological concentrations of hypochlorite, “Phytotherapy” 2009, 80, 138-142.
Matysek-Nawrocka M. et al., Biologically active substances extracted from tea, coffee and cocoa and their use in cosmetics, “Postêpy Fitoterapii” 2016, 2, 139-144.
Olczak-Kowalczyk D. et al., Nutrition and tooth decay. Part 2. Food containing polyphenols, “Nowa Stomatologia” 2017, 2, 80-88.
Parus A., Antioxidant and pharmacological properties of phenolic acids, “Postêpy Fitoterapii” 2013, 1, 48-53.
Pastusiak K. et al., Green coffee and parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and blood pressure, “Metabolic Disorders Forum” 2016, 7 (4), 170-175.
Sarriá B. et al., Regularly consuming a green / roasted coffee blend reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, “European Journal of Nutrition” 2016, 394, 1-10.
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